Background: Cystic Hygroma is a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system, present mostly at birth and gradually increases in size. It is a benign tumor of lymphatic origin, mostly seen in neck and axilla. It is seen in 1 in 6000 to 12000 births. The Surgical excision is the main stay of treatment, but it carries a risk of neurovascular damage, scar and recurrence too. Use of Intralesional Bleomycin in Cystic Hygroma has shown effective results.
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Intralesional Bleomycin in Cystic Hygroma and to study complications during the treatment.
Materials and methods: A prospective study was done over a period of 2 ½ years on 15 children 8 male (53.3%), 7 female (46.6%). The diagnosis of Cystic Hygroma was made on clinical examination and was supplemented with Doppler Ultrasonography. Before the procedure Haemogram and baseline chest radiograph performed. The procedure was performed after taking consent from parents. Preoperatively a single shot of antibiotic given. Under sedation, A wide bore (18G) needle used to aspirate the contents, with same needle placed in Inj. Bleomycin added at 0.5mg/kg body weight (diluted with 10cc of distilled water)
Results: Response was assessed clinically and on the basis of color Doppler USG. Complete resolution without induration clinically seen in 12 out of 15 patients (80%). Good response in 2 patients (13.3%) with 3 doses and in 1 patient (6.6%) after 4 doses. Adverse reactions include fever, redness and pain. No significant complications or recurrence in the follow up of 6 months.
Conclusion: So Intra Lesional Bleomycin is safe and effective treatment in Cystic Hygroma and can be practiced as an alternate to surgery.