Cryptorchidism or undescended testes is a common birth condition in children and infants. Numerous complications can arise if untreated, but can be prevented by timely intervention. This prospective study is done to determine the epidemiological parameters of undescended testes in rural population of North Maharashtra.
Methodology: This case series included 89 patients presenting to our OPD at ACPM Medical College, Dhule, From June 2014 to March 2016.Variables studied were the age of presentation, the population distribution, position of testes, size of testes and surgical outcomes.
Results: Among 89 patients, over all incidence of cryptorchidism in boys in our study was found to be around 0.7% (total pediatric OPD cases were 12,714). This rate was slightly lower to similar studies conducted elsewhere. No definite etiology could be found but there are some persistent factors like socio economic status. Higher rate of cyptorchidism was noted in lower socioeconomic class. About 20.22% patients were preterm suggesting higher preponderance with prematurity. 10.1% patients had a positive family history indicating a possible role in etiology. Maximum frequency of presentation was in 0 to 2 years age group followed by 3 to 5 years age group. But about 13.48% patients presented as late as 11 to 13 years thereby having a higher risk of testicular atrophy. Diagnostic investigation in all patients was abdominal ultrasound. All the testes impalpable on examination could be located with ultrasound in various regions of abdomen and pelvis, thereby aiding advanced planning of intervention required. Two staged orchidopexy can give good results but should be reserved for high lying testies, especially abdominal, for rest, a single stage orchidopexy can give satisfactory results.
Conclusion: Undescended testes is a common birth problem among paediatric population and surgical approach has shown to have good results.