Background: Gastric Outlet Obstruction implies complete or incomplete obstruction of the distal stomach, pylorus or proximal duodenum. Gastric outlet obstruction is not a single entity; it is the clinical and pathophysiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. Now in the era of H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors, incidence of duodenal ulcer producing gastric outlet obstruction has been decreasing as symptomatic ulcer begin to respond to medical treatment, and at the same time the incidence of antral carcinoma of stomach producing gastric outlet obstruction has comparatively increased, which may be due to increased early diagnosis of the condition with the help of flexible fibre optic endoscope.
Methods: An elaborate study of these cases with regard to the history, clinical features, routine and special investigations, pre-operative treatment, operative findings, post-operative management and complications in post-operative period is done.
Results: Of the 50 cases of gastric outlet obstruction 26 had carcinoma antrum (52%), 23 had cicatrized duodenal ulcer (46%) and 1 had gastric outlet obstruction secondary to corrosive ingestion. The age incidence of the patients in this study ranged from 22 – 84 years with a mean of 53.62 years. In case of obstruction secondary to duodenal ulcer the maximum age incidence is between 31-40 years. The maximum age incidence of gastric outlet obstruction due to carcinoma antrum is 61-70 years.
In this series, 42 patients (84%) were males and 8 patients (16%) were female. Male to female ratio (M:F) is 5.25:1. M: F ratio in cicatrized duodenal ulcer is 10.5:1 and in carcinoma antrum is 3.33:1.
52% of the patients were manual labourers who gave a history of irregular diet habits. 68% of patients had history of smoking and 66% had history of alcohol intake. Post – prandial vomiting and epigastria pain are the main symptoms (96%) in this series. Other symptoms included anorexia (84%), weight loss (72%), post prandial Epigastric fullness (68%), haematemesis (24%), melena (64%) and constipation (48%). Pallor was present in 56% and dehydration in 62%.
Blood group ‘O’ was common in cicatrized duodenal ulcer patients (52.18%) whereas blood group ‘A’ was common in malignant cases (50%).
Conclusions: Number of cases with cicatrized duodenal ulcer as the chief etiological factor for gastric outlet obstruction is diminishing and the number of cases of antral carcinoma of stomach as the cause of gastric outlet obstruction is increasing. Upper Gastro intestinal endoscopy should be mandatory in all suspected cases of gastric outlet obstruction. It can diagnose the cause of obstruction very effectively than any other investigative modality. Effective treatment in carcinoma stomach depends on early diagnosis.