Background: Cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest presentations of underlying pathology of the head and neck region which has large number of differential diagnosis like neoplasms, infections (specific and nonspecific), immune deficiency disorders and rare disorders.
Methods: The present study is a perspective study conducted in our institution Dr. V.R.K. Women’s Medical College; Teaching Hospital & Research centre Hyderabad during the period July 2016- July 2018. Our study included 50 patients with cervical lymphadenopathy presenting with swelling of more than 1.5 cm size in longest diameter. All the patients included in our study are more than 5 years of age, in whom the lymph node did not regress after adequate antibiotic therapy in acute cases (i.e. Conservative management for at least 2 weeks), and all the chronic cervical lymphadenopathy patients.
Results: Tuberculosis was found to be the most common cause of cervical Lymphadenopathy in 68% cases followed by non specific lymphadenitis in 30% cases, and fungal infections in 2%. In the present study, age incidence of cervical lymphadenopathy occurs in-between 11-20 (40%). The maximum age of the study population was 65. The present study revealed that majority of the patients had contact with tuberculosis 41 (82%). Prevalence was more in female (60%) patients than the male patients. Cervical lymph adenopathy was mostly seen in low income group people (74%) and also found in overcrowding persons living in one room (66%). In the present study, incidence of cervical lymphadenopathy variation was seen in both urban and rural areas. Tuberculosis is the most important causative factor of lymphadenopathy both in rural and urban conditions.
Conclusions: Tuberculosis, reactive lymphadenitis and malignancy are the most important causes of cervical lymph adenopathy. They present in different age groups, sexes and socio-economic conditions correlate with development of cervical lymphadenopathy.