Human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus are major health problems throughout the world. All over the world surgeons have the highest risk for exposure to blood and its products during performing their procedures. Human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B and hepatitis C affecting more than three billion people worldwide and hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus is the single most important factor of chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma in India and abroad. Universally preoperative testing of these blood born virus HIV, HBV, HCV has been a accepted strategy to reduce the risk of virus transmission. This study was designed to analyse the magnitude of these infections as a global health problem, affecting millions of population throughout globe. This study also describe the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus in surgical patients undergoing elective and emergency surgeries.
Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study done on 275 patients who were admitted for general surgical care between July 2016 and May 2020 in single surgical ward and were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV antibodies.
Results: Patients included in the study were between 16-18 years of age and included both male as well as female. There were 182 male and 93 female with male: female ratio 1: 0.51. Out of 275 patients 33.45% patients were positive for HBsAg, 34.54% were positive for anti-HCV, and 29.09% were positive for anti-HIV.
Conclusions: Education of all healthcare workers including doctors along with routine preoperative testing of all patients undergoing elective and emergency surgeries are highly important to enhance the awareness of these infection in order to reduce the transmission of disease. As the common message is ‘Prevention is better than cure ‘It is highly important to prevent further spread of these infections by screening of every patient before any surgery whether elective or emergency and also counselling should be done of all patients. All the doctors and paramedical staff must follow the proper ethical practice to ensuring the use of sterile disposables in all these patients where indicated and also protecting themselves from these viral infections.