Abstract: Background and Aim:
Gallstone disease (GSD or Cholelithiasis) is a significant health problem both worlds over (in both developing and developed nations). Earlier open cholecystectomy was the gold standard for treatment of stones in the gall bladder. The classical open cholecystectomy (OC) and the minimally invasive laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) are two alternative operations for removal of the gallbladder. The aim of the present study is to analyze the comparing Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy for cholecystitis.
Material and Methods: The present study was a comparative prospective randomized study done in a period of one year in the department of general surgery at tertiary care Institute of India. The study pool comprised of 140 subjects, divided in two groups of 70 subjects each. The division was done on the basis of the procedure to be employed for cholecystectomy viz LC or OC. Pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). Blood loss was calculated using by gravimetric method by swab weighing.
Results: There were statistically significant differences among the average age between males and females of the study population. There was no statistical difference in the chief complaints between the two groups. In terms of operative characteristics, it was evident that the blood loss was statistically higher in open cholecystectomy cases. The commonest post-operative complication observed was nausea and vomiting, followed by abdominal distension, jaundice, wound infection and bleeding. The complications were higher among the open cholecystectomy cases.
Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe procedure in elderly patients, with no increased risk of complications compared with the open procedure. The recovery is faster and the hospitals stay, shorter. It is important the correctly assess the cardiovascular surgical risk, since this group of patients have lower vital reserve, being more sensitive to surgical trauma.