Abstract: Traditional thoracic surgery includes the treatment of intrathoracic and extrathoracic diseases, which develop synchronously all the time. In recent years, thoracic surgery has entered the era of minimally invasive surgery, which is completed through thoracoscopic techniques. Because thoracoscopy can only complete intrathoracic surgery, excessive emphasis on the use of thoracoscopy makes chest wall diseases completely ignored. However, in reality, the incidence of this disease is quite high. It can be seen that the treatment of chest wall diseases provides opportunities for specialty development. We proposed the concept of chest wall surgery in 2016 and established the world's first independent chest wall surgery department on May 9, 2018. After several years of clinical practice, we have summarized the theory and practice of this specialty. This article will report our experience and cognition.