Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has replaced open cholecystectomy as the preferred treatment for symptomatic gallbladder stones. However, a certain percentage of laparoscopic cases require conversion to open surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the conversion rate and identify the factors associated with this conversion.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis at a medical college and hospital over a 12 month period. Demographic data, clinical details, laboratory investigations, surgical indications, and intraoperative findings were collected and analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.
Results: A total of 50 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 44.26 years, with the majority in the 41-50 age group. Females constituted 70% of the cases. Higher BMI, male gender, the presence of diabetes, and a thickened gallbladder wall were identified as factors associated with an increased risk of conversion to open cholecystectomy. The overall conversion rate was 10%, with adhesions and bleeding being the main reasons for conversion.
Conclusion: This retrospective study provides insights into the conversion rate and associated factors in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Male gender, higher BMI, the presence of diabetes, and a thickened gallbladder wall were found to increase the likelihood of conversion to open surgery. These findings highlight the importance of careful patient selection, preoperative assessment, and informed consent discussions to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize the need for open procedures. Further research with larger sample sizes is recommended to validate these findings.